Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of stumps,[2] needles, twigs and cones[3] from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris. As of 1995, synthetic pine oil was the "biggest single turpentine derivative."[4] Synthetic pine oils accounted for 90% of sales as of 2000. Industrially, pine oil is used as a frothier in mineral extraction from ores.[1] For example, in Zinc extraction pine oil is used to condition Zinc sulfide ores for froth flotation. Therefore, it is important in the industry for the froth flotation process. It has largely been replaced by synthetic alcohols and polyglycol ethers

Potassium ethyl xanthate / XANTATO ETILICO DE POTASIO : Synonyms: Carbonicacid, dithio-, O-pentyl ester, potassium salt (8CI),Carbonodithioic acid,O-pentyl ester, potassium salt (9CI),Xanthic acid, pentyl-, potassium salt(6CI),Amyl potassium xanthate,Potassiumamylxanthate,Potassium n-amylxanthogenate,Potassium pentyl xanthate,Potassium pentyl xanthogenate.
- It is the highest selectivity reagent due to its short carbonate chain. Generally used in complex Ag/Pb or Zinc ores.
- Application of this collector found its place at flotation concentration of copper ores in combination with potassium amyl xanthates. At flotation of oxide minerals of lead and copper, after sulphidation, potassium ethyl xanthate reaches high usage and quality with a bit increased consumption. This collector is Recommended use in alkali environment (pH>7.0).

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Xanthates in mining Xanthates have been the workhorse of sulfide mineral flotation since the 1920’s (Harris 1989), and they represent the largest volume of any sulfide mineral collector. Xanthate collectors are salts consisting of a non-polar hydrocarbon group, which provides the hydrophobicity to a sulphide mineral, pointing outward from the mineral to the solution, and a polar group that adsorbs onto the sulphide mineral surface.
RAW MATERIALS: are Carbon Disulfide, Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide) or Potash (Potassium Hydroxide) and a determined alcohol, which provides it with collecting properties in flotation processes of metallic and polymetallic minerals.
The production of pure xanthates requires pure raw materials and then the reaction must also be driven to completion. This requires sophisticated process design and control of the manufacturing process which, in turn, influence the price and metallurgical efficiency of the product.


Xanthates Relative Strength Typical Plant Concentration %
Sodium Ethyl Xanthate /SEX WEAK 10-20
Sodium Isopropyl Xanthate /SIPX
Sodium Isobutyl Xanthate /SIBX 10-20
Potassium Amyl Xanthate /PAX 15-25